Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Alcoholism In The 21st Century Essay -- essays research papers fc

Alcoholism in the 21st Century   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The dictionary describes alcoholism as continued excessive or compulsive use of alcoholic drinks. However, this disease is much more complex. Alcohol abuse is a growing problem in the United States today, causing more and more deaths each year. It affects nearly everyone in the U.S. today, either directly or indirectly. Over half of Americans have at least one close relative that has a drinking problem. About 20 million people in the United States abuse alcohol. It is the third leading cause of preventable deaths, and about 100,000 people die each year from alcohol related incidents (Peacock 11).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Alcohol is not a new invention of modern societies. It has been around through many different ancient cultures, wine being the most prominent substance. Some cultures viewed alcohol consumption as good, while others perceived it good only in moderation. For example, the Greek god Bacchus was known for his excessive drinking while the Roman god Dionysus was known for teaching moderation in drinking (Peacock 20-21).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Alcoholism was also learned to have existed in history. Interpreted writings on the tomb of an Egyptian king who lived over 5,000 years ago read, â€Å"His earthly abode was rent and shattered by wine and beer. And the spirit escaped before it was called for.† This shows that he died from alcohol related causes. However, most cultures began to limit alcohol use when they learned how to efficiently produce the beverage. Babylonian king Hammurabi and Chinese emperor Chung K’iang executed violators of their laws concerning alcohol (Peacock 20). Even in the Bible, refrain from alcohol is stressed. â€Å"†¦Nor drunkards†¦ will inherit the kingdom of God† (Alcohol and the Bible). The United States was not immune to strict laws opposing alcohol. In 1919, the 18th Amendment was passed, limiting alcohol use. This period lasted for 14 years and became known as the Prohibition (Peacock 28).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ancient and modern literatures show that alcohol has been around longer than most people think. For example, in the ancient epic of Giglamesh, written 4,000 years ago, one character was the goddess of wine and brewing, Siduri (World literature 136, 139). The Chinese poet Tu Fu wrote about celebrating an old friend’s retirement with wine in his... ...rch on causes and treatment has increased substantially. There are many new and traditional treatment methods being tested to treat alcoholism. Looking toward the future, there is hope for a successful treatment of alcoholism, and prevention in generations to come. Works Cited Alcohol and the Bible: New Expanded Version. 29 April 2001.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  . Botsford, Christy. National Children of Alcoholics Week. 29   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  April 2001. Clinton Signs Bill to Lower Drunken Driving Standards. Dallas Morning News. SIRS. 23   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  October 2000. Peacock, Nancy. Drowning our Sorrows, Psychological Effects of   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Alcohol Abuse. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 2001. Selected Poetry of Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849). 29 April 2001.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Williams, Steven. â€Å"America’s Drinking Problem.† Teen People. March 2000: 100-105. World Literature Third Edition. United States: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 2001.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Economic Factors in the Decline of the Byzantine Empire

â€Å"Economic Factors in the Decline of the Byzantine Empire† In this article taken from The Journal of Economic History, Peter Charanis discusses the factors that economically affected the decline of the Byzantine Empire. His discussion is based on the fact that past scholars, such as English historian Edward Gibbon who wrote The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, thought the Byzantine Empire was in a constant state of decline throughout its existence, but he disagrees. He says that more recent scholars have found that it was, in fact, one of the great empires in history.He references to historians such as Fridtjof Nansen, author of L’Armenie et le proche Orient, who said that the Byzantine culture â€Å"is and will remain one of the most remarkable works of architecture, and if the Byzantine culture had created nothing but that, it would be sufficient to classify it among the greatest. † Charanis is convinced that most scholars today reject G ibbon’s theory, and this article discusses why he believes so. Because the Byzantine Empire endured for over a thousand years and was the center of civilization until the middle of the eleventh century, it could not be looked at as a constantly declining empire.According to Charanis, it preserved antiquity, developed new forms of art, and held back barbarians. Byzantium produced great soldiers, statesmen, diplomats, reformers, and scholars. It was also successful at spreading the gospel among pagan tribes. Charanis quotes Czech historian F. Dvornik who wrote Les Slaves byzance et Rome au IX saying Byzantium â€Å"molded the undisciplined tribes and made nations out of them; it gave to them its religion and institutions, taught their princes how to govern, transmitted to them he very principles of civilation – writing and literature. â€Å"Byzantium was a great power and a great civilizing force,† Charanis said. He believed that war and religion were the two pri ncipal factors that molded the society of the empire and determined its external position. Because war was a normal state during Byzantium’s thousand year existence, war was not a reason to believe that it was constantly declining. For example, in the seventh century, the Sarcens, Slavs, and Bulgars reduced the empire greatly, but the seventh century emperors reorganized the administration of the empire to cope with the situation at hand.In the eleventh century however, the empire was not as fortunate to recover from certain military reverses that occurred. There were disastrous defeats that they never fully recovered from, and this is what finally led to the beginning of their decline. One very important factor, according to Charinis’ sources such as Russian historians’ books and works, were the conditions the Manzikerts left the empire in. It had such a huge impact on the social and economic life of the empire, and this was the basis of its virtual disappearan ce.Byzantium relied so fully on the social and economic aspect of their culture, that an attack to this was fatal. The Manzikert military aristocracy was far from what the Byzantines were accustomed to, and caused the soldiery-peasantry to decline which was a large part of their state. Up until this point, emperors were able to rework the empire and reorganize things so that Byzantium could thrive, but after their â€Å"large estate†, which had been a huge party of their society, was attacked, it was almost impossible.Charanis believes that the aristocracy that was put in place in the eleventh century was also another large factor of decline. Instead of being a social and economic based empire, it was a military aristocracy. The soldiers were the holders of the military estates, and the aristocracy absorbed the estates of the peasants. The focus of the emperors was the happiness of the soldiers and not of the peasants, or all the other people in the empire, and this was also a large source of decline in Byzantium.Once the emperors of the eleventh century realized that this system was not working quite as well, they tried to create an anti-military policy, which consummated a depression in soldiers. This entire struggle that occurred after the seventh century caused the empire to participate in a series of civil wars affected its sources and manpower, according the Charanis. Other serious factors that caused the decline were the weakening of the central administration, the failure to enforce measures of protection for the soldiery-peasantry, and the grants of privileges made to the aristocracy.It has been said that another reason for their decline was the strict controls they placed on commerce and industry, but Charanis disagrees and says it is extremely doubtful that this was their weakness. He backs up this argument by saying that when those controls were most strictly enforced, was when their empire was at its greatest. He goes on to say that the per iod of the greatest decline is marked by the breakdown of these controls.Tenth century Byzantine emperor Romanus Lecapenus wrote in one of his novels that the extension of power to the strong and the depression of power to the many would â€Å"bring about the irreparable loss of the public good. † Charanis agrees with him saying that â€Å"His prediction had come true. The disappearance of the free peasantry, the increase in the wealth, privileges, and power of the aristocracy, and the consequent depression of the agrarian population constitute, I think, some of the principal factors in the decline of the Byzantine Empire. †Charanis’ evidence is clearly all there and cited, but it is somewhat difficult to understand his references. They’re numbered at the bottom and his numbers are meant to further explain certain points throughout the article. Another problem I have with his evidence is that they are mostly books written by foreign authors, and I canâ₠¬â„¢t read the titles. I believe that Charanis has clearly proven his point and thoroughly discussed his thesis; however, his argument was not extremely bold, because he is arguing one historian’s theory (Edward Gibbon), and agreeing with every other historian who believes the Byzantine Empire was great.His argument was more fact-based, and proven through certain points of notoriety throughout the existence of the empire, and his presentation of these points seemed unorganized. In fact I found the organization of this article to be somewhat confusing. He seemed to jump around from century to century and fact to fact. I believe it would have been much more efficiently written if he had discussed the certain centuries of the empire in chronological order. This also would have more effectively shown the factors that led up to the decline of the Byzantine Empire.Instead he jumped around discussing things that related to the factors, but not thoroughly discussing what order the th ings happened and why one led to the next. Charanis did not raise new questions in his argument. He simply argued Gibbon’s theory, and used other historians to back his argument up. In fact, most of the historians that Charanis used as references were quite old, for example, Fridtjof Nansen, a Norwegian author from 1928. No recent authors or suggestions were raised from Charanis’ article.I think that overall this article offered some very thorough and credible information about the decline of the Byzantine Empire, but since his original argument was that Gibbon was wrong, he should have used more examples of historians that supported Gibbons theory and argued their points as well. Though he had many historians to back up his argument, his thesis mentioned Gibbon. He definitely proved his point and listed many factors that caused the decline of the Byzantine Empire, but I would have liked to see less confusing organization and newer information that supported his argume nt.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Historical Timeline of the Animal Rights Movement

Concern for animal suffering is not new or modern. The ancient Hindu and Buddhist scriptures advocate a vegetarian diet for ethical reasons. The ideology behind the animal rights movement has evolved over millennia, but many animal activists point to the 1975 publication of Australian philosopher  Peter Singers â€Å"Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals† as the catalyst for the modern American animal rights initiative. This timeline highlights some of the major events in modern animal rights. Early Events and Legislation 1635: First known animal protection legislation passes, in Ireland, An Act against plowing by the tayle, and pulling the wool off living sheep.   1641: The Massachusetts colonys Body of Liberties includes regulations against Tirranny or Crueltie toward animals. 1687: Japan reintroduces a ban on eating meat and killing animals. 1780: English philosopher Jeremy Bentham argues for better treatment of animals. 19th Century 1822: British Parliament passes Act to Prevent the Cruel and Improper Treatment of Cattle. 1824: The first Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded in England by Richard Martin, Arthur Broome, and William Wilberforce. 1835: The first Cruelty to Animal Act is passed in Britain. 1866: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded by New Yorker  Henry Bergh. 1875: The National Anti-Vivisection Society is established in Britain by Frances Power Cobbe. 1892: English social reformer Henry Stephens Salt publishes Animals Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress. 20th Century 1906: Upton Sinclairs novel The Jungle, an excoriating look into the cruelty and appalling conditions of the Chicago meatpacking industry, is published. 1944: English animal rights advocate Donald Watson founded the Vegan Society in Britain. 1975:  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals† by philosopher Peter Singer is published. 1979:  Ã‚  Animal Legal Defense Fund is established, and the National Anti-Vivisection Society establishes World Lab Animal Day on April 24, which has since evolved into World Laboratory Animal Week. 1980:  People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is founded; â€Å"Animal Factories† by attorney Jim Mason and philosopher Peter Singer is published. 1981:  The Farm Animal Reform Movement is officially founded. 1983:  The Farm Animal Reform Movement establishes World Farm Animals Day on October 2; â€Å"The Case for Animal Rights,† by philosopher Tom Regan is published. 1985:  The first annual Great American Meatout is organized by the Farm Animal Reform Movement. 1986:  Fur Free Friday, an annual nation-wide fur protest on the day after Thanksgiving, begins; the  Farm Sanctuary is founded. 1987:  California high school student Jennifer Graham makes national headlines when she refuses to dissect a frog; Diet for a New America by John Robbins is published. 1989:  Avon stops testing its products on animals; In Defense of Animals launches their campaign against Proctor Gamble’s animal testing. 1990:  Revlon stops testing its products on animals. 1992:  Animal Enterprise Protection Act is passed. 1993:  General Motors stops using live animals in crash tests; The Great Ape Project is founded by Peter Singer and Paola Cavalieri. 1994:  Tyke the elephant goes on a rampage, killing her trainer and escaping from the circus before being gunned down by police. 1995: Erica Meier founded Compassion Over Killing. 1996:  Vegetarian activist and former cattle rancher Howard Lyman appears on Oprah Winfrey’s talk show, leading to a defamation lawsuit filed by Texas Cattlemen. 1997:  PETA releases an undercover video showing animal abuse by Huntington Life Sciences. 1998:  A jury finds in favor of Lyman and Winfrey in the defamation lawsuit filed by Texas Cattlemen; An investigation by The Humane Society of the U.S. reveals that Burlington Coat Factory is selling products made from dog and cat fur. 21st Century 2001: Compassion Over Killing conducts an open rescue at a battery hen facility, documenting abuses and rescuing eight hens. 2002:  Dominion by Matthew Scully is published;  McDonald’s settles a class-action lawsuit over their non-vegetarian french fries. 2004:  Clothing chain Forever 21 promises to stop selling fur. 2005:  The U.S. Congress pulls funding for inspections of horse meat. 2006:  The SHAC 7 are convicted under the Animal Enterprise Protection Act;  Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act is passed, and an investigation by the Humane Society of the U.S. reveals that items labeled as â€Å"faux† fur at Burlington Coat Factory are made of real fur. 2007:  Horse slaughter for human consumption ends in the United States, but live horses continue to be exported for slaughter;  Barbaro dies at the Preakness. 2009:  The European Union bans cosmetics testing and bans the sale or import of seal products. 2010:  A killer whale at SeaWorld kills his trainer, Dawn Brancheau.  SeaWorld is  fined $70,000  by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 2011:  National Institute of Health stops funding of new experiments on chimpanzees;  President Barack Obama and Congress legalize horse slaughter for human consumption in the U.S. 2012:  Iowa passes the nations fourth ag-gag law, which prohibits the undercover filming of farm conditions without the owners consent;  An international convention of neuroscientists declares that non-human animals have consciousness. The declarations main author goes vegan. The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness is published in Britain, which states that many nonhuman animals possess the neurological structures to generate consciousness. 2013:  The documentary Blackfish reaches a mass audience, causing widespread  public criticism of SeaWorld. 2014: India bans cosmetic testing on animals, the first Asian country to do so. 2015-2016: SeaWorld announces it will end its controversial orca shows and breeding program. 2017: The Appropriations Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives  votes  27 -25 in favor of re-opening horse slaughter plants in the U.S. 2018: Nabisco changes its 116-year-old package design for Animal Crackers. The new box is cage-free; Sens. John Kennedy, R-La., and Catherine Cortez, D-Nev., introduces the Welfare of Our Furry Friends Act (WOOFF) to prohibit airlines from storing animals in overhead compartments after the death of Kokito, a French bulldog during a United Airlines flight from Houston to New York. 2019: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announces plans to reduce and eventually eliminate the use of mammals to test the toxicity of chemicals; California becomes the first U.S. state to ban the sale and manufacture of new fur items; Cat declawing is banned in New York State.

Friday, December 27, 2019

What is the Fourth Estate

The term fourth estate is used to describe the press. Describing journalists and the news outlets for which they work as members of the fourth estate is an acknowledgment of their influence and status among the greatest powers of a nation, the author William Safire once wrote. The term goes back centuries when it applied to any unofficial group that wielded public influence, including a mob. An Outdated Term Use of the term fourth estate to describe the modern media, though, is somewhat outdated unless it is with irony, given the publics mistrust of journalists and news coverage in general. Fewer than a third of news consumers say they trust the media, according to the Gallup organization. Before 2004, it was common for a majority of Americans to profess at least some trust in the mass media, but since then, less than half of Americans feel that way. Now, only about a third of the U.S. has any trust in the Fourth Estate, a stunning development for an institution designed to inform the public, Gallup wrote in 2016.   The phrase lost its vividness as the other estates faded from memory, and now has a musty and stilted connotation, wrote Safire, a former New York Times columnist. In current use the press usually carries with it the aura of freedom of the press enshrined in the U.S. Constitution, while press critics usually label it, with a sneer, the media. Origins of Fourth Estate The term fourth estate  is often attributed  to British politician Edmund Burke. Thomas Carlyle, in Heroes and Hero-Worship in History, writes: Burke said that there were three Estates in Parliament, but in the Reporters Gallery yonder, there sat a fourth Estate more important far than them all. The Oxford English Dictionary attributes the term fourth estate to Lord Brougham in 1823. Others attributed it to English essayist William Hazlitt. In England, the three estates preceding the fourth estate were the king, the clergy and the commoners. In the United States, the term fourth estate is sometimes used to place the press alongside the three branches of government: legislative, executive and judicial. The fourth estate refers to the watchdog role of the press, one that is important to a functioning democracy. Role of the Fourth Estate The First Amendment to the Constitution frees the press. But that freedom carries with it a responsibility to be the peoples watchdog. The traditional newspaper, however, is threatened by shrinking readership, and the watchdog role is not being filled by other forms of media. Television is focused on entertainment, even when it dresses it up as news. Traditional radio stations are threatened by satellite radio, with no ties to local concerns. All are confronted with the frictionless distribution enabled by the Internet, the disruptive effects of digital information. Few have figured out a business model that pays for content at todays rates. Personal bloggers may be great at filtering and framing information, but few have the time or resources to perform acts of investigative journalism. Sources Safire, William. â€Å"The One-Man Fourth Estate.†Ã‚  The New York Times, The New York Times, 6 June 1982Swift, Art. â€Å"Americans Trust in Mass Media Sinks to New Low.†Ã‚  Gallup.com, Gallup

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Americans Attitude Change in the 60s - 2293 Words

Question 1: For many Americans, the 1960s began with JFKs Age of Camelot, an era that seemed to exude confidence in American institutions. Yet, by the early 1970s, those expectations and attitudes seemed to be replaced by a sense of bitterness and cynicism. Discuss and analyze the causes and consequences of this profound attitudinal shift. Question 3: How did official US policy towards Vietnam change between 1950 and 1975? How did American leaders link events in Vietnam to national security interests? How did the American public react to the war in the sixties and early seventies? Answer: These two questions are so intertwined with one another that combining the two answers is the most efficient way of telling the story.†¦show more content†¦What seems to have begun the turning of the tide for Americans perception of government is what comes next. In November of 1963, JFK was assassinated in Dallas. In one explosive moment, Camelot came crashing down and died with Kennedy. America was shocked, and events such as Jackies witness to Johnsons swearing in, all while continuing to wear the blood and brain speckled suit, further personified the event. Johnson was not as liked as a president. He had somewhat of a personality complex. He always wished to be viewed as powerful. He was a tall Texan, and his professed arrogance was pushed on all who contacted him. For example, he had a powered chair lift installed in Air-Force-One so that he could raise himself inches above the people he was talking with. Johnson had always been a strong legislator, and he brought these talents to the white house. He pushed for social issues. He was successful in passing the Civil Rights Act in 1964, followed by the Voting Rights Act shortly later. In November of 64, Americans elected Johnson in a landslide. All of America except for the Deep South seemed to like what he had to say about social issues. Johnsons own presidency shadows the divide of America. Johnson was brought into the continuing expansion of troubles in Vietnam. Kennedy had supported the South-Vietnamese democratic intentions, but shortly before his ownShow MoreRelatedThe Influene of World War II on the Social Norm and Art Movements of America1779 Words   |  7 PagesOnce World War II ended, it was like large weight had been lifted of the shoulders of not only the American people. In light of the heavy tole that this war, a preceding depression the nation was ready for a time of peace. The decade after this era stood in contrast, with numerous riots and turbulence due to major social changes. Because of this major contrast in two adjacent decades in history, many historians have come to conclusion that the fifties were a time of conformity, and collectednessRead MoreThe American Reaction to Involvement in Vietnam Essay862 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Reaction to Involvement in Vietnam In the early 60s, most Americans were very ignorant about Vietnam. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Three Chinese Schools Of Thought Essay Research free essay sample

Three Chinese Schools Of Thought Essay, Research Paper The Three Schools Joseph Kemling Chinese Civ Essay 2 The three schools of thought-Confucian, Taoist, and Legalist, all have different positions and grounds as to whether or non the United States should be involved in the struggle in Kosovo. Each school perceived Tao in different ways and had different position? s on human nature. To see how each school would take its side on this issue, we must foremost hold some background information on the schools. Confucius was one of the chief subscribers of the Confucian school of idea. He had one overpowering message: if work forces are to accomplish a province of methodicalness and peace, they need to return to traditional values of virtuousness. These values are based wholly on one construct: jen, which is best translated as # 8220 ; humaneness, # 8221 ; but can besides intend # 8220 ; humanity, # 8221 ; # 8220 ; benevolence, # 8221 ; # 8220 ; goodness, # 8221 ; or # 8220 ; virtue. # 8221 ; This humaneness is a comparatively unusual construct to Western eyes, because it is non chiefly a operable virtuousness. Rather, the occupation of the # 8220 ; gentleman, # 8221 ; ch # 8217 ; ? n tzu, was to concentrate on the highest constructs of behaviour even when this is impractical or foolish. Like his coevalss, Confucius believed that the human order in some manner reflected the Godhead order, or the forms of Eden. More than anything, for Confucius the ancients understood the order and hierarchy of Eden and Earth ; as a consequence, Confucius established the Chinese yesteryear as an infallible theoretical account for the present. ( Reader P. 81 ) What is incumbent on single people is to find the right form to populate and regulate by ; this can be achieved by analyzing the sage-kings and their manner of life and authorities and by following rites conscientiously, for the form of Eden is most explicitly inscribed on the assorted rites, Li, prescribed for the behavior of mundane life. Neglecting ritual, or making rites falsely, demonstrated a moral lawlessness or upset of the most crying sort. These heavenly forms were besides inscribed in the forms of music and dance, Y? eh, so that order in this life could be attained by apprehension and practising the order of traditional and grave music and dance. Music and dance are talked about invariably in the Confucian Hagiographas. Why? Because traditional music and dance absolutely embody the humaneness and wisdom of their composers, who understood absolutely the order of the universe and Eden ; one can make within oneself this wisdom by decently executing this music and dance. ( Reader p. 97 ) Taoism is, along with Confucianism, the most of import strain of Chinese thought through the ages. It is about wholly different from Confucianism, but non contradictory. It ranges over wholly different concerns, so that it is common for persons, philosophers, Chinese novels or movies, etc. , to be both Confucianist and Taoist. The Taoist has no concern for personal businesss of the province, for mundane or everyday affairs of disposal, or for luxuriant ritual ; instead Taoism encourages avoiding public responsibility in order to seek for a vision of the nonnatural universe of the spirit. ( Website ) Taoism is based on the thought that behind all material things and all the alteration in the universe lies one fundamental, cosmopolitan rule: the Way or Tao. This rule gives rise to all being and governs everything, all alteration and all life. Behind the bewildering multiplicity and contradictions of the universe lies a individual integrity, the Tao. The intent of human life, so, is to populate life harmonizing to the Tao, which requires passiveness, composure, non-striving ( wu Wei ) , humbleness, and deficiency of planning, for to program is to travel against the Tao.The text of Lao Tzu is chiefly concerned with portraying a theoretical account of human life lived by the Tao ; later authors will emphasize more mystical and charming facets. But Lao Tzu was, like Confucius, Mo Tzu, and Mencius, besides concerned with the nature of authorities ; he believed unquestioningly in the thought that a authorities could besides be in conformity with the Tao. What would such a authorities expression like? It would non pay war, it would non be complex, it would non interfere in people # 8217 ; s lives, it would non wallow in luxury and wealth, and, ideally, it would be inactive, functioning chiefly as a usher instead than as a governor. There were people who tried to translate Lao Tzu into existent political action during the Han dynasty ; these were, as you might conceive of, dramatic failures. Taoism is often called in China, # 8220 ; The Teachings of the Yellow Emperor and Lao Tzu, # 8221 ; or # 8220 ; The Teachings of Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu. # 8221 ; Now, Chuang Tzu ( 369-286 B.C. ) was a existent individual ; his instructions come down to us in a short aggregation of his expressions. The Yellow Emperor is wholly fabulous. This Lao Tzu, nevertheless, we know nil about ; we can non state with certainty if he existed and when ; on the other manus, we can non state with certainty that he did non be. All we know is that we have a really short book, the Lao Tzu ( or Tao te ching ) , whose writer is supposed to be Lao Tzu. The book is difficult to read ( as is Chuang Tzu ) , for one of the underlying rules of Taoism is that it can non be talked about. Hence, Lao Tzu uses non-discursive authorship techniques: contradiction, paradox, mysticism, and metaphor. ( Reader p. 82 ) The Legaliats presented a first in Chinese authorities: the application of a philosophical system to authorities. And despite their blue failure and subsequent demonisation throughout descendants, the philosophical and political inventions they practiced had a permanent consequence on the nature of Chinese authorities. The basic starting point for the early Confucianists ( Confucius and Mencius ) was that human existences were basically good ; every homo was born with Te, or # 8220 ; moral virtue. # 8221 ; The 3rd gr eat Confucianist of antiquity, Hs? n Tzu ( fl. 298-238 B.C. ) , believed precisely the antonym, that all human existences were born basically depraved, selfish, greedy, and lubricious. However, this was non some dark and pessimistic position of humanity, for Hs? n Tzu believed that worlds could be made good through socialization and instruction ( which is the basic position of society in Europe and America from the eighteenth to the 20th centuries: worlds are basically basal and coarse but can be taught to be good and refined ) . His student, Han Fei Tzu, began from the same starting point, but determined that worlds are made good by province Torahs. The lone manner to look into human selfishness and corruption was to set up Torahs that bounteously rewarded actions that benefit others and the province and ruthlessly penalize all actions that harmed others or the province. For Confucius, power was something to be wielded for the benefit of the people, but for Han Fei, the benefit of the people lay in the ruthless control of single selfishness. Since even the emperor can non be counted on to act in the involvements of the people, that is, since even the emperor can be selfish, it is necessary that the Torahs be supreme over even the emperor. Ideally, if the Torahs are written good plenty and enforced sharply, there is no demand of single leading, for the Torahs entirely are sufficient to regulate a province. ( Website ) When the Ch # 8217 ; in gained imperial power after decennaries of civil war, they adopted the thoughts of the Legalists as their political theory. In pattern, under legalists such as Li Ssu ( d. 208 B.C. ) and Chao Kao, the Legalism of the Ch # 8217 ; in dynasty ( 221-207 ) involved a unvarying dictatorship. Peoples were conscripted to labour for long periods of clip on province undertakings, such as irrigation undertakings or the series of defensive walls in northern China which we know as the Great Wall ; all dissension with the authorities was made a capital offense ; all alternative ways of thought, which the Legalists saw as promoting the natural unruliness of humanity, were banned. The policies finally led to the ruin of the dynasty itself after merely 14 old ages in power. Local peoples began to revolt and the authorities did nil about it, for local functionaries feared to convey these rebellions to the attending of the governments since the studies themselves might be construed as a unfavorable judgment of the authorities and so consequence in their executings. The emperor # 8217 ; s tribunal did non detect these rebellions until it was far excessively tardily, and the Ch # 8217 ; in and the policies they pursued were discredited for the remainder of Chinese history. ( Reader p. 82 ) But it is non so easy to disregard Legalism as this short, anomalous, unpleasant period of dictatorship in Chinese history, for the Legalists established ways of making authorities that would deeply influence ulterior authoritiess. First, they adopted Mo Tzu # 8217 ; s thoughts about utilitarianism ; the merely occupations that people should be engaged in should be businesss that materially benefited others, peculiarly agribusiness. Most of the Ch # 8217 ; in Torahs were efforts to travel people from useless activities, such as scholarship or doctrine, to utile 1s. This utilitarianism would last as a dynamic strain of Chinese political theory up to and including the Maoist revolution. Second, the Legalists invented what we call # 8220 ; regulation of jurisprudence, # 8221 ; that is, the impression that the jurisprudence is supreme over every single, including single swayers. The jurisprudence should govern instead than persons, who have authorization merely to administrate the jurisprudence. Third, the Legalists adopted Mo Tzu # 8217 ; s thoughts of uniform standardisation of jurisprudence and civilization. In order to be effectual, the jurisprudence has to be uniformly applied ; no-one is to be punished more or less badly because of their societal standing. This impression of # 8220 ; equality before the jurisprudence # 8221 ; would, with some alterations, remain a cardinal construct in theories of Chinese authorities. In their pursuit for unvarying criterions, the Ch # 8217 ; in undertook a undertaking of standardising Chinese civilization: the authorship system, the pecuniary system, weights and steps, the philosophical systems ( which they chiefly accomplished by destructing rival schools of idea ) . This standardisation deeply affected the coherency of Chinese civilization and the centralisation of authorities ; the effort to standardise Chinese thought would take in the early Han dynasty ( 202 B.C.-9 A.D. ) to the merger of the rival schools into one system of idea, the alleged Han Synthesis. ( Website ) With this background information, I believe that the Confucianists and the Legalists would support the U.S. engagement in Kosovo ; while the Taoists would be against it. The Confucianists would see it as their responsibility to assist out the people in Kosovo, and to halt the atrociousnesss that are happening at that place. Not acquiring involved would be non being virtuous. The power of the United States should be wielded to assist the people and the province. The Legalists would besides back up engagement in Kosovo, but for a different ground than the Confucianists. They would see it as their right to demo tough love to the Yugoslavians. They would privation to back up the UN? s determination that no state can interrupt the jurisprudence and non be punished. Once the Yugoslav? s were punished, they would see the visible radiation as to what is the proper thing to make. The Legalists believed that merely penalizing Yugoslavia for their bad behaviour would benifit the universe and give it order. The Taoists would non back up the U.S. engagement in Kosova for many grounds. The Taoists believe in the virtuousnesss of inactivity. They believed that the intent of human life, so, is to unrecorded life harmonizing to the Tao, which requires passiveness, composure, non-striving ( wu Wei ) , and humbleness. The Taoists would hence non prosecute in an aggressive onslaught in Kosovo.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

United States Foreign Policies to Egypt and Libya Foreign Policies before Uprisings

Table of Contents Foreign Policies before Uprisings Foreign Policies after the Uprising Differences between Previous and Current Policies Future Foreign Policies Works Cited Foreign Policies before Uprisings The United States have always enjoyed a cordial relationship with Libya and Egypt before the turmoil. The previous administrations the U.S. had very sound policies towards the two States, which were meant to strengthen ties.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on United States’ Foreign Policies to Egypt and Libya Foreign Policies before Uprisings specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The U.S. government never came up with policies projected to force the leaders of the two States to be accountable. Insisting on things like democracy and liberalization of the economy could anger the leaders of these States and hence straining the economic ties. The U.S. supported Libya in its endeavors while the United States be nefited from reduced fuel prices. The U.S. government protected Libya from the angers of the reformists and other aggressions from outside. The autocratic leaders were supplied with weapons from the American arms industries. The American engineering industry benefited from the relations because it reaped maximally. The government of the U.S. avoided any conflicts with the two States since such conflicts can interfere with the multilateral relations. The U.S. companies marketed the products from Libya and supplied the Egyptian industries with facilities such as machinery needed for production. The relations between the U.S. and the embattled States before the uprisings can therefore be termed as peaceful and cooperative. The relations were mutual since the two parties benefited, though the U.S. benefited more. It is argued that there is no common government at the international system. States are more concerned with their self-interests. The U.S. supported the two countries because i t benefited from such support. States at the international system exist according to the Hobbestian state of nature. The international system is anarchic meaning that the mighty States, such as the U.S. subjugates the lesser ones. States at the international system have not yet formed a Leviathan, which is a common authority in charge of overseeing the affairs of all States. Libya and Egypt were supported by the U.S. only because of one reason, oil. After the uprisings, things changed. The U.S. swiftly changed and demanded accountability from the leaders of the two States. This was aimed at preserving its image at the international system. The United States is always depicted as the image of democracy. It is not surprising that the U.S. voted for the decision at the U.N. Security Council authorizing the imposition of the no-fly zone to Libya. The U.S. foreign policies towards these states were inspired by economic motives.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see i f we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Foreign Policies after the Uprising The U.S. can bear Mubarak’s and Kaddafi’s defeat because it is uncertain Egyptian ruling leaders as well as Libyan autocrats will refuse to continue operating within the American precincts. Certainly, they will grip to the Washington’s lap. It is equally cynical that the military council managing Egypt at the command of the ruling class will lead the state in a way acceptable to the employees and students who ousted Mubarak. It was sending a warning to the leader of the military council, Field Marshal Mohamed Tantawi, who served faithfully at Mubarak’s regime in ruling Egypt for years.   The insurgents observe that while the tyrant is departed, vital features of the stretched repression are expected to stay put. Washington is contented with the progress so far. What the United States cannot accept is a public rebellion in a State inferior to the U.S. that demolishes the established state machinery and starts edifying a fresh radical government devoted to throwing out the entire traces of the previous imperialist authority. When Nicaragua attempted it, Uncle Sam instigated the Contras. After Cuba made it, the U.S. is still harsh to its little neighbor for proclaiming sovereignty from its Yankee overlord, 52 years afterward (Grimmett 76). The concern is whether the Egyptian citizens will be contended when fresh provisions are made in some months to come. In Libya, the U.S. of late has taken a more active position as opposed to the time when the uprising started. It has joined other major powers in condemning the outraged Libyan government for assaulting innocent citizens and committing crimes against humanity. The U.S. forces have so far been deployed to the region to check any terror activities that might crop up in the course of the uprising. Differences between Previous and Current Policies The U.S. before the uprisings ha d friendly policies that were meant to entice the leaders to dispose of oil products at fair prices to the people of America. The U.S. supported all forms of governments in the region without considering their political responsibilities. Things have so far changed. Every leader wishing to take over power is assessed carefully to determine whether he will abide by the rules and regulations of the United Nations (Bret 21). The current governments must be accountable and responsive to the needs of the people. It can be summarized that, while the policies before the uprisings were cooperative in nature, the policies after the uprisings are full of conflicts.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on United States’ Foreign Policies to Egypt and Libya Foreign Policies before Uprisings specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Libyan autocrats are no longer protected because the whole world is now keen on the activities taking place. Supporting totalitarianism will be contradictory to the U.S. principles. For that reason, the U.S. is calling upon the leaders to liberalize the economy and ensure that basic human rights are adhered. Future Foreign Policies The U.S. policies in future will have to be tactful since the incoming governments may come up with new strategies to lockout the U.S. from oil proceeds. The secret agents are working out a formula to ensure that friendly leaders take over power in the two States. The leaders are expected to support the United States in the U.N. Security Council and its quest to achieving national interests. The future foreign policies will be all encompassing and inclusive. The U.S. will come up with future policies after scrutinizing the idiosyncratic variables, that is the behavior of leaders and the institutional or governmental variables, implying the governmental institutions such as the civil service and the executive. Future foreign policies will be shaped by the aftermath of the uprising. Should governmental powers land to the hands of the Islamic radicals, the U.S. will be forced to come up with more radical policies to counter the influence of the group. This could be one of the setbacks for the U.S. government. Works Cited Adams, Chris. â€Å"Libyan rebel leader spent much of past 20 years in suburban Virginia.† McClatchy Newspapers, 2011. Web. Bret, Stephens. â€Å"The Libya mission was never about regime change.† Wall Street Journal, March 2011. Web. Grimmett, Richard. â€Å"The War Powers Resolution: After Thirty-Six Years.† Fas.org, 2010. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Gutterman, Steve. â€Å"No UN mandate to attack Gaddafi forces: Russia.† Reuters, 2011. Web. Kareem, Fahim. â€Å"Rebel leadership shows signs of strain in Libya.† New York Times, 2011. Web. Youssef, May. â€Å"Anti-Gaddafists Rally in London.† Al Ahram Weekly, AlJazeera,  2005. Web. This essay on United States’ Foreign Policies to Egypt and Libya Foreign Policies before Uprisings was written and submitted by user Jedidiah Rivas to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.